As in lacto-fermentation - the method of pickling and preserving without vinegar and canning!
The idea sometimes seems scary to people since (USA referencing) we grew up with the concept of bacteria = BAD!
This process is pretty low-tech and can create delicious results. Another plus is the health aspects. This type of ferment creates lots of the "good" bacteria (probiotics) and is easily digestible.
Just about every culture around the world has/had a tradition of this style fermenting of vegetables, grains & dairy.
I hope we can create a resource of recipes for ferments, how to use them and also help each other with troubleshooting.
If you aren't familiar with lacto-fermentation here are some resources to get you excited!
Wild Fermentation - Sandor Katz
The Art of Fermentation - Sandor Katz
Nourishing Traditions - Sally Fallon
Making Sauerkraut & pickled vegetables at home - Klaus Kaufmann
Full Moon Feast - Jessica Prentice (includes lacto-fermentation)
Joy of Pickling - Linda Ziedrich (includes lacto-fermentation)
lots of blogs, search for GAPS diet or Weston Price will turn up many
Chow made an excellent, inspiring video as part of the "obsessive" series:
Let the fun begin!