Just thought I would clear up the confusion when people "just want a coffee"! In Australia we do have plenty to choose from on our coffee menu so I have explained each drink below. Each drink is espresso based, meaning the coffee used in the process is from an espresso machine. If you just order an espresso coffee, you will get an....
Espresso: AKA short black. Single 30ml shot of espresso. A double espresso is two 30ml shots together.
Ristretto: Similar to an espresso but a restricted shot of only 15ml. It is a very rich short drink.
Short Macchiatto: Espresso with a dollop of froth.
Long Black: Hot water then a double espresso
Americano: Upside down long black (Double espresso then hot water)
Long Macchiatto: Ask the cafe; there are two variations. One is similar to a long black, but with less hot water and froth on top. The other is like a short macchiatto but with a bit more froth and a bit of milk.
Cappuccino: 1/3 espresso, 1/3 steamed milk, 1/3 froth
Latte: Same amount of espresso as cappuccino, but less froth - approximately 1cm. Served in a glass generally.
Flat White: Same amount of espresso as cappuccino and latte, but with between 0-5 ml of froth.
Note: All three drinks above are very similar, only difference is the amount of froth.
Half Latte/Piccolo Latte: These drinks are similar or the same, but may vary depending on the cafe. Same as a latte but with less milk, to make it a stronger coffee with a bit of froth but not too much.
Affogatto: Scoop of ice cream and espresso
Iced Latte: Generally means cold espresso, milk and ice cubes.
Iced Coffee: Generally means cold epsresso, milk and ice cream. Cream optional.
"Froth" is the common name for micro-foam, which is created when steaming the milk. This should be smooth and creamy - if not, go to a different coffee shop!
I hope I have been of help!