I had one very fine dinner last week in Amsterdam, at a restaurant called d'Theeboom. The cuisine is French modern, done to a very high order while the price of a set dinner is only about 30 Euro, which seemed only a touch higher than the run of mediocre restaurants I wound up in. The decor, service, and the little details (like the best dinner rolls I've had in a long time) were all looked after by someone who obviously cared.
d'Theebooom is located at number 210 on the Singel Canal. It's pretty much directly west of dam square, just north of Raadhuisstraat.