This primer, from our collected wisdom, will get you started:
Bap: cooked rice, the main course.
Panchan: the many tiny pickled dishes that accompany the meal.
Kimchi: the central panchan, fermented napa cabbage.
Guk, tang, jjigae and jjim are all soupy, stewy dishes. Tang and guk are thinner, and jjigae and jjim are thicker: Kalbi tang is beef rib soup, haemul tang is spicy seafood soup; soon dubu jjigae is a very spicy tofu stew, and galbijjim is beef rib stew.
Bibim means mixed, so bibimbap is mixed rice, or rice with various toppings. Bibim baengmyun is cold noodles mixed with toppings.
Japchae is yam noodles, almost always served cold, in a sticky sauce.
Pa Jun is a savory pancake. With seafood mixed in, it’s called haemul pajun. Dduk is a savory or sweet rice cake.
Das Ubergeek says that, unlike in Chinese cuisine, the default meat of Korean cooking is beef. Daeji is pork; dak is chicken; haemul is mixed seafood.
Don’t forget Korean barbecue!
Korean Food Primer