Classic, elegant, and stiff, the martini is a simple fusion of gin and dry vermouth, stirred together with ice, and strained into a chilled glass. The main variables are the proportion of gin to vermouth, and what you choose to garnish with. This recipe uses a 2-to-1 for the former, though 4-to-1, even 5-to-1, is popular. For some, washing the martini glass with dry vermouth, then dumping the vermouth in the sink before stirring straight gin with ice, is just right. As for garnishing, adding a toothpicked green olive or two is strictly up to you.
To make this into a dirty martini—Franklin D. Roosevelt’s favorite—add a splash of olive brine from the jar and garnish with a green olive. A Gibson is made exactly like the martini, only garnished with a small cocktail onion.