Espresso, while apparently a simple drink, is in reality a complex product. It is derived from 1500 chemical substances (800 volatile and 700 soluble), and when prepared correctly involves 13 independent chemical and physical variables. Research on espresso is extremely complex and highly specialized, requiring a multidisciplinary approach involving the fields of agronomy, botany, physics, mathematics, chemistry, biochemistry, biology, statistics and computer science, among others.
some companies like illy perfectly roasts its coffee for full flavor without burning or over roasting the beans. The roasted coffee is then air-cooled. Another illycaffè exclusive is the pressurization technique used by the company to preserve its coffee. In this process, air is extracted from the cans and replaced with inert gasses at a higher-than-atmospheric level of pressure. This method guarantees a longer preservation time, maintaining the coffee's freshness for over 24 months until it is prepared. At the same time it "ages" the coffee, improving its aroma over time by causing its volatile aroma compounds to bind with the oils that are contained in the beans. Simple vacuum packing cannot achieve this flavor transformation. The effect of this aging process is similar in many ways to the development of complex flavors when a fine red wine is aged under the proper conditions