Is keto healthy, or bad for your heart?

Keto has been in the public consciousness for a while now, with scores of vocal fans, but as we ease into a new decade, keto backlash seems to be picking up steam. So is keto bad for your heart, and your health in general?

The low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet can certainly sound too good to be true. (Eat butter! And red meat! And cheese! Eschew carbs and lose weight!) But search #ketotransformation on Instagram and you’ll see well over 1 million posts (seemingly) proving weight loss is a result of slipping into ketosis. Or just look at Vinny from “Jersey Shore.” Or Al Roker.

Related Reading: The Best Low- and No-Sugar Cookbooks for Keto, Paleo, and Diabetic Diets

So what are the downsides of the keto diet (besides giving up bread, meticulously tracking net carbs, and the keto flu)?

Keto’s Impact on Your Health

Let’s get back to the butter and red meat and not eating carbohydrates, which would have anyone with a baseline knowledge of cardiovascular disease and heart attack asking, Is the keto diet bad for your heart? It seems like a low-carb, high-fat diet would be bad news for your ticker (and your cholesterol levels), but that may not be the case.

In fact, one 2017 review of studies published in the journal “Nutritionfound that a keto diet could improve HDL cholesterol levels, as well as reverse the course of Type 2 Diabetes by controlling blood glucose levels. In addition, the ketogenic diet has been proven as an effective dietary treatment plan for some patients with epilepsy, and some studies suggest it could help treat symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. That said, most experts agree that more research is needed, and that the improvements in cardio risk factors may be limited.

The Key-to Keto:Best MCT Oils, According to Keto Pros!Certain research also suggests that the ketogenic diet may have some adverse side effects, including potential kidney and heart complications (think kidney stones, especially if someone on keto isn’t hydrating properly). In addition, there have not been enough studies conducted over more than 2 years to determine the long-term effects of the ketogenic diet, which means we can’t be certain how producing more ketones may affect the body or the heart over a period of multiple years.

Other side effects include digestion issues like constipation, low blood sugar, exhaustion, and headaches, although most side effects (also called the keto flu) should subside after the first few days on the diet as your body slips into ketosis.

Keto Commitment vs Casual Keto

Like other low-carbohydrate diets, while the ketogenic diet has some proven benefits, most experts say these benefits are greatly diminished if you “sort of” follow the ketogenic diet. For instance, you want to be keto compliant, so you order eggs and bacon to make sure you’re hitting your macros for protein and fat intake…but the French toast looks delicious, so you grab some from your dining mate’s plate. At this point, your body is no longer in ketosis, and the fatty foods on your plate might be doing more harm than good, says Doctor Stephen Sinatra, a cardiologist in New York City.

While some studies show that a ketogenic diet may actually lower cholesterol levels for people who follow a strict ketogenic diet, experts worry that “keto” has become code to some for “go nuts at the Brazilian barbeque” says Sinatra, without fully committing to keto guidelines, including making sure the low-carb diet is done under the supervision of a doctor.

Salmon and Asparagus Kebabs

Chowhound

So can the ketogenic diet and remaining in a state of ketosis be a healthy way to help you achieve your weight loss goals without inciting heart disease? It depends on how strict you plan to be while following the diet, and to make smart choices in the foods you are allowed to have on the plan. Yes, you can technically have a fully keto meal from the drive-thru. But that red meat double double will most likely be loaded with saturated fat.

“It’s important not to go overboard on saturated fats and focus on healthy, monounsaturated fats,” notes Sinatra. That’s because saturated fats are more likely to raise your LDL cholesterol level, regardless of whether or not you’re following the keto diet. Some smart keto choices and healthy fats include eating lean meats, fish, leafy green veggies like spinach and kale, above ground, non-starchy vegetables like cauliflower, broccoli and eggplant, and healthy oils like coconut oil, grape oil, and flaxseed oil.

Related Reading: How to Make Keto Meal Prep a Success | The Best Keto Snacks We’ve Tried

If a plant-based diet doesn’t sound sustainable to you, the Mediterranean diet (which allows lean meats and lots of fish and seafood) could be a good middle ground. The important part is picking something that you can work with though the long haul, as any kind of yo-yo dieting is uhealthy (and likely to backfire when it comes to long-term weight loss).

Bottom Line

Bottom line, when it comes to the ketogenic diet and heart health research echoes what Instagram before and afters show: The ketogenic diet can be an effective form of weight loss. But it may not be the best option for you to lose weight. Talking to your doctor and getting a full workup, including blood work, prior to starting a ketogenic diet can help you monitor how the diet is affecting your body, including your heart. And the same is true before you embark on any weight-loss plan.

Header image courtesy of The Picture Pantry / Alloy / Getty Images

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